Background of Rural Development

01 The First Rural Development Transformation was introduced by Tun Abdul Razak in 1957 with the aim of developing physical infrastructure and providing extensive basic amenities to rural residents. It provides a solid track for rural areas to become active and advanced.
02 Red Book Plan was launched in 6th May 1960 to be a parallel development programme amongst all rural areas through a 3 levelled execution namely Federal, State and District levels. It is a step to instil communal attributes and interest in local development when the people and leaders are involved not only in the implementation process of the development but also in the planning process too. In the era when the Red Book was implemented, Malaysia was seen as a model country with a solid approach in rural development at a global level and it created the first momentum for rural development.
03 Adult Education Division which was created in 1961 under the Ministry of Rural Development was the first step for the development of human resources by eliminating illiteracy in rural communities. In the year 1977 this division was renamed to Social Development Department (KEMAS) which policy is to be involved in the development of human capital and also rural communities.
04 New Economic Policy (NEP) that was introduced in 1970 had two pronged aims namely the eradication of poverty and the restructuring of society. Almost 90% of rural residents at that time were underprivileged and through NEP, poverty eradication efforts had made possible a wider economic opportunity and provided health and housing services to the poor regardless of ethnic groups. For the restructuring of societies, the economic imbalance was restored to reduce and then eliminate ethnic identification by economic functions.
05 On 10th June 1984, the New Approach to Village and Rural Development launched by Tun Dr Mahathir is a comprehensive effort to improve the economic status of the rural communities. It aims to increase the quality and productivity of agriculture, increase farmers’ income and rural workers as well as facilitate the delivery of services and infrastructures. It also reduces poverty by instilling cooperative spirit as well as develops self reliance in lucrative economic endeavour.
06 The Second Rural Development Transformation in 1994 was the start of the focus being on the development of human resources especially human development for rural societies. It was a paradigm shift in the thinking and approaches as a complement to the philosophy that was the base of the First Rural Development Transformation. This transformation could be seen clearly when machinery was used to improve production and reduce workforce.
07 The New Philosophy and Strategy for Rural Development that was introduced in 1994 was to mould rural folks with quality and versed in noble values, so that they could optimally apply existing time, information and resources and finally produce economic development and family happiness at an excellent level.Economic opportunities provided in rural areas will benefit human resource more widely.
08 The Rural Vision Movement (GDW) that was launched on the 4th of July 1996 by Tun Dr. Mahathir Muhammad stresses on the involvement of the village people themselves in the planning process and the development programme towards rural areas that are more advanced, attractive and profitable. It is in line with continuous organized efforts through awareness building processes and attitude development of the village community towards a rural transformation. It focuses on four approaches, which is to reorganize the villages, to develop agriculture through farms, to create small industries and non-agricultural small enterprises as well as to create rural area urbanization.
09 The Vision Force Movement (GDayaW) that was launched in 2003 was intended to ensure rural areas accomplish multiple advancement to achieve Vision 2020 in making rural areas that are advanced, attractive and profitable. GDayaW is a strategic synthesis and an upgrade from two main rural development approaches which are, the New Approach to Village and Rural Development and GDW. Three aspects are given emphasis, which are, Human Force, Economic Force and Market Force.
10 The Rural Mega Leap Programme though the Agropolitan Programme was launched on the 11th of August 2007 by Dato’ Seri Abdullah Badawi in Pulau Banggi, Sabah.It was an Agropolitan project that was implemented to accomplish hardcore poverty eradication goals by the year 2010. The main focus of the implementation was on 10,000 targeted Hardcore Poor Household Heads (KIRMT) from remaining KIRMT throughout Malaysia and was brought to isolated, retrogressive and neglected areas which were developed with 3 main components which included infrastructural development, economical development and human capital development.
11 The Rural and Industrial Development Authority (RIDA) is an organization that was established in 1951 with general objectives to ease the burden and upgrade the socio-economics of the rural community by early increase of facility development and rural industrial development. The RIDA mobile shop which was introduced on the 15th of January 1960, is an effort to market rural products to foster the interest of the rural community towards rural industries.
12 The First Malaysian Plan (RMA1) that was introduced in 1956 had a main target towards economic development which stresses on the rural sector.As for now, the economical status and achievement level of the rural community is low compared to the urban community.
13 The Second Malaysian Plan (RMA2) in 1961, utilized the planning strategy, by focusing mainly on rural development as well as community involvement in the planning process and implementation.